The history of Great Britain / История Великобритании

Great Britain has a long and interesting history. By 450 ВС its population was Celtic In AD 43 the Roman occupation of the country began. It lasted for nearly on year. Then the attacks from pirates from Germany — Angles, Saxons and Jutes took place. Gradually, the Anglo-Saxons united into kingdoms. At the beginning of the 9th century the Danes and Norsemen began to occupy the country. They ruled the country for several decades till 1042. 24 years later the invasion by the Normans under William the Conqueror began. It brought feudalism to the country. The social structure of the country was very similar to the rest of Europe.

By the 14th century most English towns became free from feudal restrictions. Besides, the country had a strong Monarchy and a Parliament. The 15th century was a period of civil wars, the Wars of the Roses. But the next period, the reign of Elizabeth I stimulated the development of English commerce (cloth trade). In the 17th century the Parliament became the Parliament of Great Britain after the union of England and Scotland. After the union with Ireland in 1801 it became the Parliament of the United Kingdom. This period saw the development of science. Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, William Harvey were the most famous scientists of that time.

The 18th century brought the Industrial Revolution. It gave development to the cotton industry and agriculture. In the 19th century Great Britain became the leading capitalist state. Britain's relatively peaceful development ended in the year 1914. Britain entered World War I. Strikes and unemployment were the result of it. World War II was another difficult period in the history of Britain. The British people withstood heavy bombing with great courage. London itself was bombed for 76 nights continuously. When the USSR entered the war, the Britain's situation became better. After the war many social reforms and economic development took place. Now Britain is one of the leading countries in the world and the history of the country continues.

Словарь

ВС ("before Christ") — до нашей эры

AD (Anno Domini, Latin — "in the year of Christ") — нашей эры

to occupy — занимать

an invasion — вторжение

a restriction — ограничение

unemployment — безработица

a strike — забастовка

Celtic — кельтский

Roman — римский