United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a sovereign island country located off the north-western coast of continental Europe. The UK includes the island of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales), the northeast part of the island of Ireland and many small islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK with a land border, sharing it with the Republic of Ireland. The UK is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea. The largest island, Great Britain, is linked to France by the Channel Tunnel. The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 245 000 square kilometres.
The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The temperature varies with the seasons, but seldom drops below — 10 % or rises above 35 °C. The prevailing wind is from the southwest, bearing frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. Summers are warmest in the south east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Snowfall can occur in winter and early spring.
The flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Flag, commonly known as the "Union Jack". It was created by the superimposition of the flags of England (St. George’s Cross) and Scotland (St. Andrew’s Cross), with the Saint Patrick’s cross, to represent Ireland, added to this in 1801. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. However, the possibility of redesigning the on Flag to include representation of Wales has not been forgotten. The national anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King", the word King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics whenever the monarch is female. The anthem’s name, although remains "God Save the King".
a sovereign island — суверенный остров
to be linked to smth — примыкать к чему-то, быть связанным, соединенным с чем-то
a temperate climate — умеренный климат
plentiful rainfall — обильные дожди
to drop below — падать низко (о температуре) падать до низкой отметки (на термометре)
to rise above — подниматься высоко (о температуре), подниматься до высокой отметки
the superimposition of the flags — наложение флагов
to be represented — представленный
to be conquer and annexed to smth — завоеванный и присоединенный к чему-либо
prior to the formation of smth — прежде формирования чего-либо