The United States does not celebrate national holidays. But Congress has designated 10 "legal public holidays," during which most federal institutions are closed and most federal employees have days off work. Since 1971, a number of the holidays have been fixed on Mondays, so as to afford workers a long holiday weekend. Among most favorite American holidays are the following ones:
New Year’s Day (January 1) — Americans celebrate the beginning of a new year at home, with friends, and in gatherings from the Tournament of Roses Parade in California to the giant gathering in New York’s Times Square.
Independence Day (July 4) — The Independence Day holiday commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of Independence by the Second Continental
Congress on July 4, 1776. The holiday was already widely observed throughout the nation when Congress declared it a federal legal holiday, in 1870.
Thanksgiving Day (fourth Thursday in November) — Thanksgiving is a variant of the harvest festival. It is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. The holiday is typically celebrated at home with a large and festive meal, and in order to express thanks for that bounty.
Christmas Day (December 25) — Most Protestants and Roman Catholics and some Orthodox Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus on December 25.
These holidays are observed nearly universally throughout the public and private sectors. Sometimes, although, states and private employers are free to adopt their own holidays.
to designate smth — назначать что-либо
an employee (s) — работник, служащий
to afford smb smth — позволить кому-либо что-либо
to commemorate the adoption of some document — ознаменовать, отмечать принятие какого-либо документа
a festive meal — праздничный стол; праздничное блюдо
to express thanks for smth — выражать благодарность за что-либо
the birth — рождение
in employer (s) — работодатель